13 April 2012

Tsunami : How to predict them?

A Tsunami  is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.

The tides causes much distruction to the nearby sea land. Here We explain how techonology is used to predict tsunamies..

1. Place bottom pressure recorders on the bottom of the ocean floor as these specialized devices record water pressure changes.
2. Place surface buoys (outfitted with an acoustic modem attuned to read and record the bottom pressure recorders' data) above water near where the bottom pressure recorders reside.
    a. The bottom pressure recorders' software should be set to run an algorithm that calculates water height values based on the water pressure.
    b. The software then compares the current measurements with previous recordings and transmits it.
3. Set the software so that if two predicted water values in a row are higher than expected, the bottom pressure recorder goes into an alert mode called Tsunami Response Mode.
4. Hook up satellite connections between the buoys and local ground stations or your computer.
    a. Computers should be equipped to translate the signals and submit them for transmission to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Tsunami Warning Centers.
5. Monitor seismographic readings and when they indicate trouble, load a hazard-mapping simulation program to your computer.
    a. This program should have data about current weather states and historical data input for it to calculate probabilities.
    b. The pressure recorder will only revert after 3 hours of calm water pressure measurements.
6. Input the current data on water pressure changes, land geography, and weather conditions and run the simulation program adjusting plans and evacuations accordingly.
    a. Computer simulations of tsunamis are used to predict when waves will hit the coastline, how tall the waves will be, and how deep inland the waves will reach.
7. Gain access to or place GPS satellites around your coastlines.
    a. These satellites will react to displacement from earthquake activity on the ocean's floor, which can trigger or foreshadow tsunamis.
8. Bounce radio signals between satellites and measure their travel time.
    a. Differences in travel time that are significant can be transmitted to local stations, yet another way to signal tsunami risk and warn of danger.
9. Monitor your area's data and begin to build historical trends to reference.

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